Linux Tools


Linux Tools

Swap is space on a disk that is reserved to be used as virtual memory. When a Linux server runs out of memory, the kernel can move inactive processes into swap to make room for active processes in the working memory.
A swap...
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As of October 28, 2013, Cloud Servers built using our base Linux images are created without a dedicated swap partition and “swappiness” (a measure of how the Linux kernel will try to use swap memory) set to 0. Any Linux Cloud...
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In addition to CPU, RAM, and disk space configuration, you may view additional disk, I/O, and networking information about available Cloud Servers. Use this information to help you decide which Cloud Server is right for your...
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Munin uses plug-ins to determine what data is gathered and reported. It includes several plug-ins for the types of data most people would be interested in, but not all of those plug-ins are enabled on a fresh installation.
What...
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Following the article about installing munin monitoring systems, if you want to monitor additional servers you'll need to install a munin node service on each.
What's a munin node?
A munin node is a data collector for munin that...
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The previous article, Generating and Viewing Awstats Reports explained how to manually run awstats reports. In this article, we will review the steps you need to automate report generation. This procedure eliminates the need to...
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Awstats in action
The first article in this series, Installing awstats on Linux, taught you how to how to install and configure awstats for your site. In this article, we will explain how to generate reports from the command line...
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The awstats program is a versatile tool for generating web traffic reports. In this article we will review a simple awstats installation to track statistics for your cloud site.
Web log analysis
If you run a web site, you might...
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Tcpdump is a powerful network debugging tool that can be used for intercepting and displaying packets on a network interface. An important feature of tcpdump is a filter that allows you to display only the packets you want to see...
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This article briefly describes a method of identifying which network interfaces on a Linux server are associated with which IP addresses.

IPv4

You can get a simple list of the network interfaces and IPv4 addresses on your...
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When should I use Rescue Mode?
If your Linux system has become non-bootable or is suffering from critical system errors, you can use Rescue Mode to recover your system data. These problems may be caused by file system corruption...
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You've built your base server and are about to take an image of it.  If only there were some way to know whether the RackConnect portion of the build process would succeed before you spent the time necessary to create the image...
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Cloud Sites removed the ability to host disparate technologies due to changes in our technology options. The hybrid technology option removal allows us to release new changes more quickly. For more information, click here.
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Using netcat
If you have a network service that's not behaving like it should but you know it's listening to a network port, you can take a closer look at a connection to the program to see if it reveals the problem.
We will now...
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netstat
If you're troubleshooting a service that you know is running normally the next step is to make sure it's listening to the right network port.
The netstat command shows the services listening to ports on a Linux server...
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Checking system load
If the demands being placed on a running program cause it to request excessive resources from your server this can lead to poor performance and system instability.
Uptime
First let's check the load on your...
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Is the program running?

The first step in troubleshooting a network service is to make sure the program is running.


service

To check that the program is running we will start by using the command 'service'. You...
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Troubleshooting Internet services
This article series provides a set of steps for troubleshooting general issues accessing a network service, like sending an e-mail using your mail server or viewing a webpage on your web server....
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Warning: 32-Bit Linux operating systems are no longer supported by Rackspace. You will take your own responsibility and risks for downgrading your cloud server to 32-Bit Linux OS. Standard Rackspace Cloud Control Panel features...
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Warning: Repartitioning a Cloud Server is a high-risk operation unsupported by Rackspace. Data on the server may be destroyed permanently. After repartitioning Standard Cloud Server operations including backup, restore, resize to...
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If you come across a situation where you are unable to login as root to your Linux Cloud Server through a standard ssh connection, but you can login with the console in the Control Panel, a likely cause is that remote login as...
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One of the great advantages of using Rackspace Cloud Servers (product page) is the flexibility that you have to purchase only the amount of computing power you need.  When business is good and you need increased server capacity,...
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Preface
Beginning Server Size
Creating your first User
Creating your Groups
Setting Up SSH On your Server
Setting up your SSH Key
Setting Up your Initial Firewall
Setting Up your sudoers file
Setting Up Fail2Ban
Preforming a...
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The Fedora Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository provides useful software packages that are not included in the official CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories. Other third-party repositories, like the...
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We will provide instructions for Installing Munin Monitoring Systems on Ubuntu and Centos/Fedora/Redhat. Munin is a monitoring system that will provide you with your Server stats on a simple to read website.
There are two parts...
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The iotop utility provides an easy-to-use interface for monitoring swap and disk I/O on a per-process basis.
Watching the disk
Sometimes you get more disk activity on your system than you would like. Maybe you saw the problem by...
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Here we look at the basic scripting options for dstat as well as an overview of its external modules.
All-powerful
Well, not that. But it can feel a little like that when you fiddle with some more advanced aspects of dstat....
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For a flexible reporting tool that can yield information ranging from CPU use to the top I/O-consuming process look no further than dstat.
All-seeing
Well, maybe not “all-seeing”, but it made for a catchy header. Though dstat...
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Applying knowledge
In the previous article we talked about what logrotate does and how you can configure it. In this article we’ll apply this new knowledge to putting together a log rotation solution for a custom virtual host or...
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What is logrotate?
It may surprise you to learn that logrotate is a program used to rotate logs. It’s true! The system usually runs logrotate once a day, and when it runs it checks rules that can be customized on a per-directory...
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In this last entry in our series on Linux file permissions we look at the umask and some more advanced file permissions. We also throw in some discussion of other file types you may see in a directory listing.
Odds and ends
We’ve...
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Now we look at the other way chmod can be used - with numbers. This is the more commonly-used format, but also the least user-friendly.
The other chmod: with math
You’ve learned how to use chmod with symbolic values, but there’s...
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We’ve done the thinking and the seeing, now to start the doing. Continuing our series on file permissions, we look at using the chmod command.
Changing permissions
In the previous article in this series we learned how to use the...
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Once you understand Linux file permissions, the next step on the road to enlightenment is learning how to check the permissions for a file or directory.
Checking permissions
If you’ve been through the previous article in this...
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Linux file permissions are strange and wondrous things. Start down the path of understanding by looking at the core concepts behind them before moving on to practical applications.
This series will start with the basics and move...
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To run Java applications on Rackspace Cloud Servers you will need a copy of the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) or the JDK (Java Development Kit) installed on your server. Most Linux distributions include an open source version of...
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Vi (and its updated cousin, vim) is a text editor that is available on most Linux and Unix servers.  Once you get comfortable with it you'll find vi is a fast and powerful editor.
Why vi
Since you'll routinely be editing files on...
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This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
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You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
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The kernel
Deep at the core of any Linux installation is the kernel, the bundle of instructions that ties the whole system together. Without the kernel Linux isn't Linux - indeed, technically Linux is just the kernel. Everything...
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NOTE: This article is no longer updated, and the steps listed don't work completely with all current distributions. It is preserved for archival purposes. There are discussions of using CloudFuse in the comments here and on a...
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Oldie but goodie: crontab
There's one more approach that can be taken when scheduling jobs with cron, and that's the "crontab". The crontab is the oldest and most standard approach to scheduling with cron, so you'll occasionally...
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Fine-grained control: cron.d
We've talked about using basic cron directories to run tasks on a standard schedule, but what if you want a schedule that's a bit less standard? What if you want to run a script every five minutes, or...
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What is cron?
Your server runs maintenance scripts on regular schedules behind the scenes. Some run nightly, some weekly, some might even run every five minutes. The scheduling for those tasks is done through a system called cron...
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Networking issues can be problematic when working on a remote server. If you accidentally break your Cloud Server's networking capabilities, you may find yourself locked out of any remote connection. However, many networking...
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This article will walk you through installing ffmpeg on CentOS 5.2. This article assumes that you have completed the CentOS Setup Guide, are working from a clean server, and you are logged in as a non-root user with sudo...
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Contents
1 Introduction
2 Package Managers and Repositories
2.1 APT/Dpkg (Debian, Ubuntu)
2.2 Yum/RPM (CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat)
2.3 Pacman (Arch)
2.4 Emerge/Portage (Gentoo)
2.5 But what if the software I'm looking for isn't in...
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When troubleshooting issues with your Linux server one of the most useful resources at your disposal is the humble log file, recording your system's activity and any problems it's encountered. The following guide shows the...
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This article is a spawn off the original top article. You may view it here: System Monitoring with top

Contents
1 Introduction
2 Installing in CentOS/RHEL/Fedora
3 Installing in Ubuntu/Debian
4 Using htop
4.1 Main Screen
4.2...
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Note: There is an alternative to top provides a more user-friendly interface called htop. See our article on it here: System Monitoring with htop

Contents
1 Introduction
2 Full output
3 Details
4 Columns
5 Memory
6 CPU
7...
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Nowadays, the average survival time (time it takes to become infected with malware) of an unpatched computer connected directly to the Internet is less than eight minutes. The importance of keeping a Cloud Server's packages up-to...
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When transferring files and backing up data from one computer to another, the smaller the file and the fewest number of files speeds up the process enormously.
This article concentrates on compressing and uncompressing files and...
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This article will walk you through installing ffmpeg on Ubuntu Intrepid. This article assumes that you have completed the Ubuntu Intrepid Setup Guide, are working from a clean server, and you are logged in as a non-root user with...
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This article describes the steps required to modify an older First-Generation Cloud Server to boot from a kernel installed in the instance using pv-grub.  First-Generation Cloud Servers load their kernel from the host machine by...
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This tutorial will walk you through setting up a point-to-point VPN tunnel between your Cloud Servers. This type of connection will use the internal network interface (eth1) so you will not be charged for bandwidth. This walk-...
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IPv6

This article briefly describes a method of identifying which network interfaces on a Linux server are associated with which IP addresses.

IPv4

You can get a simple list of the network interfaces and IPv4 addresses on your...
0 Comments
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Windows Tools

You've built your base server and are about to take an image of it.  If only there were some way to know whether the RackConnect portion of the build process would succeed before you spent the time necessary to create the image...
0 Comments
Filed in: RackConnect
Cloud Sites removed the ability to host disparate technologies due to changes in our technology options. The hybrid technology option removal allows us to release new changes more quickly. For more information, click here.
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Sites
 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
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SSH

If you come across a situation where you are unable to login as root to your Linux Cloud Server through a standard ssh connection, but you can login with the console in the Control Panel, a likely cause is that remote login as...
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Preface
Beginning Server Size
Creating your first User
Creating your Groups
Setting Up SSH On your Server
Setting up your SSH Key
Setting Up your Initial Firewall
Setting Up your sudoers file
Setting Up Fail2Ban
Preforming a...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers

CentOS/Fedora/Red Hat Enterprise Linux

If you come across a situation where you are unable to login as root to your Linux Cloud Server through a standard ssh connection, but you can login with the console in the Control Panel, a likely cause is that remote login as...
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Filed in: Cloud Servers
The Fedora Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository provides useful software packages that are not included in the official CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories. Other third-party repositories, like the...
48 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
We will provide instructions for Installing Munin Monitoring Systems on Ubuntu and Centos/Fedora/Redhat. Munin is a monitoring system that will provide you with your Server stats on a simple to read website.
There are two parts...
8 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers

Contents
1 Introduction
2 Package Managers and Repositories
2.1 APT/Dpkg (Debian, Ubuntu)
2.2 Yum/RPM (CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat)
2.3 Pacman (Arch)
2.4 Emerge/Portage (Gentoo)
2.5 But what if the software I'm looking for isn't in...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
Nowadays, the average survival time (time it takes to become infected with malware) of an unpatched computer connected directly to the Internet is less than eight minutes. The importance of keeping a Cloud Server's packages up-to...
2 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers

Gentoo Linux

If you come across a situation where you are unable to login as root to your Linux Cloud Server through a standard ssh connection, but you can login with the console in the Control Panel, a likely cause is that remote login as...
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openSUSE

If you come across a situation where you are unable to login as root to your Linux Cloud Server through a standard ssh connection, but you can login with the console in the Control Panel, a likely cause is that remote login as...
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Ubuntu/Debian Linux

If you come across a situation where you are unable to login as root to your Linux Cloud Server through a standard ssh connection, but you can login with the console in the Control Panel, a likely cause is that remote login as...
1 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
We will provide instructions for Installing Munin Monitoring Systems on Ubuntu and Centos/Fedora/Redhat. Munin is a monitoring system that will provide you with your Server stats on a simple to read website.
There are two parts...
8 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers

Contents
1 Introduction
2 Package Managers and Repositories
2.1 APT/Dpkg (Debian, Ubuntu)
2.2 Yum/RPM (CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat)
2.3 Pacman (Arch)
2.4 Emerge/Portage (Gentoo)
2.5 But what if the software I'm looking for isn't in...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
Nowadays, the average survival time (time it takes to become infected with malware) of an unpatched computer connected directly to the Internet is less than eight minutes. The importance of keeping a Cloud Server's packages up-to...
2 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers

Resizing

One of the great advantages of using Rackspace Cloud Servers (product page) is the flexibility that you have to purchase only the amount of computing power you need.  When business is good and you need increased server capacity,...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
14 Comments
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Linux IPTables

Preface
Beginning Server Size
Creating your first User
Creating your Groups
Setting Up SSH On your Server
Setting up your SSH Key
Setting Up your Initial Firewall
Setting Up your sudoers file
Setting Up Fail2Ban
Preforming a...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers

File Transfers and File Sharing

The Fedora Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository provides useful software packages that are not included in the official CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories. Other third-party repositories, like the...
48 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
NOTE: This article is no longer updated, and the steps listed don't work completely with all current distributions. It is preserved for archival purposes. There are discussions of using CloudFuse in the comments here and on a...
34 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Files

Linux and PHP

The Fedora Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository provides useful software packages that are not included in the official CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories. Other third-party repositories, like the...
48 Comments
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Managed Operations

We will provide instructions for Installing Munin Monitoring Systems on Ubuntu and Centos/Fedora/Redhat. Munin is a monitoring system that will provide you with your Server stats on a simple to read website.
There are two parts...
8 Comments
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Application Development

To run Java applications on Rackspace Cloud Servers you will need a copy of the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) or the JDK (Java Development Kit) installed on your server. Most Linux distributions include an open source version of...
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High Availability - HA

 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
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Load Balancing

 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
0 Comments
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Uncategorized

 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
0 Comments
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Control Panel Software

 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
0 Comments
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Server Migration

 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
0 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Servers
You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
14 Comments
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- Getting Started -

 
This guide will show you how to add new Cloud Servers and Cloud Load Balancers to your account, as well as how to work with Cloud Files through the File Manager.
 
Cloud Servers
Rackspace Cloud Essentials  - Creating a New...
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MySQL

You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
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Server Images

You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
14 Comments
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FAQ

You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
14 Comments
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Version Control Systems

You have just learned how to restore servers from an image. These images are ideal for use as templates or "gold images", so that you can easily restore to a known configuration or rapidly deploy additional Cloud Servers. This...
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Interface Tools

NOTE: This article is no longer updated, and the steps listed don't work completely with all current distributions. It is preserved for archival purposes. There are discussions of using CloudFuse in the comments here and on a...
34 Comments
Filed in: Cloud Files