Downloading Data From Remote Web Servers Efficiently

Some web sites dynamically download and display data from a remote site by using an fopen() call with a URL specified. This is highly inefficient and leads to large consumption of Compute Cycles. To resolve this, set up a simple file based cache to hold the data for a reasonable period of time. The included example below serves data that's automatically refreshed once every 10 minutes as needed, and if the connection to the remote site fails or times out, the old version is returned instead. This approach is highly recommended to replace all fopen() calls that use URL's as arguments.

Why? If you don't, when your website starts getting a ton of traffic you will probably swamp the remote site.  All of your connections to that site will hang, clogging up back at your server. This will run up your bill for Compute Cycles ($$$) and your site response will be very poor. With the solution below you can handle as much traffic as your want without swamping the remote site, and your site response will be terrific.

Feel free to tailor this to suit your needs. It's offered for your free use under the GNU LGPL open source software license.


// Copyright ©2009 Rackspace US, Inc.
// Copyright ©2009 Adrian Otto
// This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE as published by
// the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
// (at your option) any later version.
// This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// GNU General Public License for more details.
// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with this program.  If not, see <>.

// Example Usage:
$data = return_remote_data("", "yahoo.html", 600);

// How it works:
// The example above downloads, saves it into 
// a file named yahoo.html (you can use a full path here, if desired), and 
// refreshes the content every 600 sec (10 min) as needed.

// Function to return remote data from cache, or serial fetch a fresh one
function return_remote_data($url,$file,$max_age) {
	$timeout = 5;
	$lock_filename = $file . ".lock";

	// First, check to see if we have fresh cached data to return
	$stat = @stat($file);
	if($stat) {
		$age = time() - $stat['mtime'];
		if($age < $max_age) { // The cached file is fresh!
			return get_file_contents_as_string($file);

	// Fetch data, because we don't have fresh data cached
	$lock_fh = fopen($lock_filename, "w"); // Create/Open a lock file
	if($lock_fh) { 
		if(flock($lock_fh, LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)) {       // Locked okay, perform the remote fetch
			ini_set('default_socket_timeout', $timeout);
			$temp_filename = $file . ".temp." . $better_token = md5(uniqid(rand(), true) . @$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']);
			$ch = curl_init($url);
			$temp_fh = fopen($temp_filename, "w");    // Open the temp file where we will store the output
			stream_set_timeout($temp_fh, $timeout);   // Set a sensible timout value
			curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_FILE, $temp_fh); // Indicate that we will download to the temp file
			curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0);      // Don't save the response headers in the temp file
			curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 30);
			curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, $timeout);
			$stat = @stat($temp_filename); 
			if($stat['size'] > 0) { // Output was downloaded
				rename($temp_filename, $file); // Rename the file to the intended name (atomic)
				flock($lock_fh, LOCK_UN); // Release the lock
				return get_file_contents_as_string($file); // MISS, but refreshed successfully
			else {
				if(file_exists($file)) { // Refresh attempt failed, returning stale version
					touch($file); // Mark it as fresh so that not every hit retries (retry once per expire interval)
					return get_file_contents_as_string($file);
				else { // There is nothing to return!
	// The file is already locked, lockfile create failed, so serve the existing file
	if(file_exists($file)) { // Returning stale version
		return get_file_contents_as_string($file);

// Function to return the contents of a file as a string
function get_file_contents_as_string($file) {
	$data = "";
	$f = fopen($file, "r");
	if($f) {
		while(!feof($f)) {
			$data .= fgets($f);
		return $data;
	else {
		error_log("Unable to open file: $file " . var_dump(debug_backtrace()));



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