Debian 5.0 - iRedMail Installation
This tutorial will walk you through the process of installing the iRedMail bundled mail server to successfully send and receive e-mail.
This tutorial assumes a few things:
- You have followed the Debian 5.0 setup guide
- You are running on a new server with no other software installed
- You are running the commands as a normal user with sudo privileges
- The current version of iRedMail at the time of writing is 0.6.0 and it is in beta.
Read this before continuing:
Mail servers are complex pieces of software and can be difficult to setup and maintain. An improperly configured mail server could cause quite a havoc not only on your server but for the rest of the Internet if spammers begin using your servers to send spam. Before attempting to run a mail server please be sure that you have a comfortable understanding of DNS (SPF/TXT/MX records), Domain Keys, Sender Policy Framework, and how mail servers/mail flow works. If you are not sure about any of these topics please read up before continuing otherwise you may run into problems and become frustrated very quickly.
Before we can begin installing the mail server we need to setup our reverse DNS. Without this you will find it hard to send or receive alot of e-mail across the Internet because servers will think you are spamming them or sending falsified e-mail.
Setting up reverse DNS through our Control Panel is very easy. Please refer to our instruction on how to setup a reverse DNS record. Keep in mind that DNS changes may take up to 24 hours to propagate across the Internet.
Next we will make sure that our server is update to date software-wise. To do this we will run an Aptitude update:
# sudo aptitude update # sudo aptitude upgrade
Setting the Host Name
One final step that needs to take place is setting up the host name of your mail server. You can view your current host name by typing:
# hostname --fqdn kelly.myServer
Now this might work for most applications but for a mail server this just won't do! We need to set your mail server's host name to match the Fully Qualified Domain Name. A Fully Qualified Domain Name, or FQDN, might look like www.google.com. For most mail servers it will be something like mail.yourdomain.com.
Have no fear! Changing your host name is a very simple task!
To change your host name we will need to modify the /etc/hostname file on your server. This is the file that stores the host name information.
# sudo nano /etc/hostname
When the nano editor opens you will see the default host name listed. Delete the line and type in your host name. Like I said earlier, most mail servers are mail.yourdomain.com. Be sure to write down what you set your host name to as we will need it later on.
Once you have modified the host name simply press CTRL-X followed by Y and Enter to save.
Modify your Host File
We have one more change to make before we can begin the installation. When addressing your FQDN we need to tell the server that it will be referring to itself and not some IP on the Internet. This will help reduce traffic and helps the server know where it is located. To do this we will need to modify the /etc/hosts file. This, too, is an easy task!
To modify the hosts file type the following:
# sudo nano /etc/hosts
The nano editor will open with your hosts file.
The first thing you need to do is delete the second 127.0.0.1 line with your old host name. This should leave you with a single 127.0.0.1 line. Move over to the localhost portion of that line and add your FQDN (mail.mydomain.com, for instance) followed by your subdomain that you've chosen (mail, in our example). Your line should look similar to the one below:
127.0.0.1 mail.mydomain.com mail localhost localhost.localdomain
To save the file simply press CTRL-X followed by Y and Enter as we did before.
To apply our host name changes we will need to reboot the server.
# sudo reboot
Once your server has rebooted please log back in.
Enable Aptitude Sources
To enable the additional Aptitude sources so iRedMail can find the software it needs to function. To do this we need to modify the /etc/apt/sources.list file. To modify the file type the following:
# sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
Go to the bottom of the file and add the following lines:
deb http://mirrors.163.com/debian lenny main contrib non-free deb http://security.debian.org/ lenny/updates main contrib non-free
To save the file simply press CTRL-X followed by Y and Enter
Now we need to test our source list changes. To do this type the following:
# sudo aptitude update
- Note: You may need to run this command twice if you receive errors.
Install Pre-requisite Packages
You're probably thinking "when are we going to install the software?" Have no fear, we are almost there! First we need to install a software package for the system to install correctly. The following software package needs to be installed:
- acl - File system permission control
- wget - Command-line download tool
- dialog - User interface control
- bzip2 - bzip2 compression tool
# sudo aptitude install acl wget dialog bzip2
We need to enable ACL access control on the file system. Please read this portion very carefully! Making improper changes to this file could destroy your file system!
Read this again! Making improper changes to this file could destroy your file system
Open up the /etc/fstab file and modify the mount options that are used to mount the main file system partition.
# sudo nano /etc/fstab
Look for a line that begins with either /dev/sda1 or /dex/xvda1 and put a # comment mark in front of it.
If that line started with /dev/sda1 go to the bottom of the file and type or copy in the following line:
/dev/sda1 / ext3 errors=remount-ro,noatime,acl 0 1
If the line started with /dev/xvda1 go to the bottom of the file and type or copy in the following line instead:
/dev/xvda1 / ext3 errors=remount-ro,noatime,acl 0 1
Save the file with CTRL-X, then Y and Enter.
Take a breath!
Remount the File System
Once you have the changes made to the /etc/fstab file you now need to reload them. This is fairly easy to do.
# sudo mount -o remount,rw,acl /
Now we are ready to install iRedMail!
Switch to Root User
iRedMail will not install with sudo privileges so we must switch to the root user. To do this type the following:
# sudo su -
You should be presented with a root@ prompt now.
To install iRedMail you will need to download the installation package from their website. Please point your web browser to http://code.google.com/p/iredmail/downloads/list and download the latest version. At the time of writing the current version is 0.6.0. For the purposes of our installation we will be using wget to download the installation package. Note that we are downloading this to the home directory of the current user.
# cd ~ # wget http://iredmail.googlecode.com/files/iRedMail-0.6.0.tar.bz2
You'll notice that iRedMail comes packaged as a TAR file with further BZ2 (BZip2) compression. To unpack this type the following:
# tar xjf iRedMail-0.6.0.tar.bz2
This will create a directory called iRedMail-0.6.0.
Download Installation-Related Packages
A few packages need to be downloaded by the installer before installation can commence. Run the following lines of code to make this happen:
# cd iRedMail-0.6.0/pkgs/ (Note that the directory name may differ between versions) # bash get_all.sh
This will download all of the packages necessary to install. Now we need to refresh the repository list:
Verify Dovecot Version
Before we can begin the installation we need to make sure that Dovecat 1.1.x will be installed. Run the following command to verify:
# aptitude update # apt-cache policy dovecot-common dovecot-pop3d dovecot-imapd | grep 'Candidate'
You should see the following output (or something similar):
Candidate: 1:1.1.13-2~bpo50+1 Candidate: 1:1.1.13-2~bpo50+1 Candidate: 1:1.1.13-2~bpo50+1
Start the iRedMail Installer
The moment has come! To start the installation type the following:
# cd ~/iRedMail-0.6.0 (Note that the directory name may differ between versions) # bash iRedMail.sh
You will see a welcome screen, press Yes.
You will be prompted for the home directory location for the vmail user. The default value, /home/vmail, will be listed -- this is okay. Simply press Next for the default option.
You will be asked which backend you would like to use: MySQL or OpenLDAP. For our example we will use MySQL as the backend so highlight MySQL and press the space-bar to select, then press Next to continue.
You will be prompted for your MySQL password. Enter it here and press Next.
vmail User Password
You will be prompted for the vmail user password as well. This will be a system user that holds all of your mail. Type it and press Next.
You will be asked to enter your first virtual domain. This is the domain that you will be hosting mail for. Type in your domain name (such as mydomain.com) and press Next.
You will be prompted to enter the administrator name of your virtual domain. The default value of postmaster is an industry standard and should be used. This address will be firstname.lastname@example.org when the installation is completed. Press Next.
Domain Administrator Password
You will be prompted to enter a password for the above postmaster e-mail address. Press Next after you have entered it.
Add User for Domain
You will be asked to add your first user for your domain. This will be your first e-mail account such as john.doe. The full e-mail address would be email@example.com. Enter the user name here and press Next.
User Password for Domain
Next you will be asked what password you would like to use for the user we just setup. You will see the full e-mail address at the top of the window. Type in the password and press Next.
SPF and DKIM
You will be prompted if you would like to setup SPF (Sender Policy Framework) and DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail). SPF is highly recommended, but DKIM is optional and should only be installed by more experienced users. Uncheck DKIM if you are unfamiliar with it. Keep in mind that these will require additional DNS entries to be made. If you would like to use these simply press Next. We will walk you through setting up the SPF and DKIM records later.
Because we are choosing MySQL as our backend we have a number of administrative tools we can install. Those tools include phpMyAdmin, PostfixAdmin and AWstats. We also have the ability to select which WebMail client we would like to install. Our installation will choose the default options (Roundcubemail, phpMyAdmin, PostfixAdmin and Awstats) so just click Next.
Default Language for WebMail
You will be asked for your default language for WebMail. Select your language and press Next.
You will be asked what e-mail address to use for the PostfixAdmin administrative e-mail. You can use the default firstname.lastname@example.org e-mail or use a different address. Click Next.
Mail Alias for root
You will be asked to put an e-mail address to use for the root user. This is where all system e-mail will be sent pertaining to the system and the root user. Put in your e-mail address and press Next. It is advised to use an e-mail address NOT hosted on your mail server.
You will be prompted to continue with the installation. Press Y and then Enter.
You will be prompted at the end of the installation if you would like to use the default iptables firewall configuration. If you have a brand new server simply press Y and then Enter. Do not do this if you have previously made modifications to your iptables configuration.
You will then be prompted if you would like to restart iptables. For now press N and press Enter.
You will be asked if you would like to start Postfix now. Press N and press Enter.
You installation should now be finished and you will be returned to a shell prompt.
Delete Setup Files
Before this server is ready to be used in a production environment it must be safely locked down and the setup files should be removed. This is easily accomplished with one rm statement.
# rm -f ~/iRedMail-0.6.0/config
Go ahead and reboot the server to reload everything and cleanly start Postfix.
Once the server comes back up go ahead and log back in as a normal user.
Setup SPF Record
Now we will need to go setup an SPF record. Go to http://old.openspf.org/wizard.html to determine what your SPF record should be. Once you have done this please submit a ticket and we will process your SPF record. Note that your mail may still function without this but you may receive frequent mail rejections.
OPTIONAL: Create DKIM (DomainKey)
To create a the Domain Key entry type the following:
# sudo /usr/sbin/amavisd-new showkeys
You will see an output like the following:
[user@mail ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/amavisd showkeys ; key#1, domain mydomain.com, /var/lib/dkim/mydomain.com.pem dkim._domainkey.mydomain.com. 3600 TXT ( "v=DKIM1; p=" "MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQCuv5EpKWzSRGm8Gtks8uDEpllQ" "Ug50USM6LjIEfx77+C9c3GpuxtTdfYMUlA7nqlolJ0GCx+PPrbSOCKZO1UeHAG2M" "/KYC9Kw8ByqP80Ni+Xx+M2fNSQCn4c+fmsX6AwLHZfshTmR6lGNTL/VMi84GgJtA" "vfufWEShr/j8f4udcwIDAQAB")
If you are hosting your DNS with Cloud Servers please submit a ticket and request that the domain key is added. We will create a TXT record for your domain with the above key. If you are hosting your DNS elsewhere you will need to create a TXT record for dkim._domainkey.mydomain.com and use the enclosed text (without the quotes) as the content.
OPTIONAL: Test DKIM
Once you have the TXT record created you can test it on your server by typing the following:
# sudo /usr/sbin/amavisd-new testkeys
If it passes you should see something like the following:
TESTING#1: dkim._domainkey.mydomain.com => pass
If you receive 'fail' then you may have a problem with your key. Please check it again. This will also result from DNS entries that have not propagated yet.
Reboot your server one more time.
# sudo reboot
Once the server has come back online proceed below.
Point your web-browser to http://trac.roundcube.net/login and this should bring up the RoundCubeMail WebMail application. Type in your login name and password and click Login. Send yourself an e-mail from another e-mail account to see if it is working. You can also send an e-mail to someone on the Internet to test outbound e-mail.
Information About Your Install
You can find information about your installation file located here: ~/iRedMail-0.6.0/iRedMail.tips
The following URLs are valid for your iRedMail installation. Replace
mail.mydomain.com with your FQDN.
- postfix.admin -
- RoundCubeMail WebMail -
- phpMyAdmin -
- AWstats -
Troubleshooting: View Mail Logs
If you are having troubles with your mail server you might want to take a peek at the logs. To view the logs for iRedMail simply type the following:
# sudo tail -F /var/log/mail.log
This will display the last output of the log and show the entries as they are added in real-time. Your output may look like the output below:
Jul 8 23:25:53 mail postfix/smtp: 2CBEFD49DD: to=<email@example.com>, relay=127.0.0.1[127.0.0.1]:10024, delay=2251, delays=2251/0.04/0/0.44, dsn=2.0.0, status=sent (250 2.0.0 Ok, id=04262-04, from MTA([127.0.0.1]:10025): 250 2.0.0 Ok: queued as 87F93D49DA) Jul 8 23:25:53 mail postfix/qmgr: 2CBEFD49DD: removed Jul 8 23:25:53 mail postfix/pipe: 87F93D49DA: to=<firstname.lastname@example.org>, relay=dovecot, delay=0.06, delays=0.04/0.01/0/0.02, dsn=2.0.0, status=sent (delivered via dovecot service) Jul 8 23:25:53 mail postfix/qmgr: 87F93D49DA: removed
--Kelly Koehn 16:06, 9 July 2009 (CDT)
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