Configuring basic security
Some people think that this is not dangerous if there are no services running on the server, and it doesn't matter that all ports are open. We disagree. If connections to unused (and popular) ports are blocked or dropped, then the vast majority of malicious intruders will move on to another machine where ports are accepting connections. It only takes a few minutes to set up a firewall - so we highly recommend that you do so to protect your server.
After you create a new cloud server, we recommend that you perform the following tasks to enhance security of the server:
- Log in to the server
- Change the root password
- Add an Admin User
- Set up public and private keys
- Modify the SSH configuration
- Set up a private firewall by using iptables in Ubuntu or Set up a private firewall using iptables in RedHat
- Restart SSH
Note: Small modifications to the following commands might be necesssary if you're using a different distribution. If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation.
Log in to the server
As soon as you have your server's IP address and password, log in using the following SSH command:
Note: If you're logging in to a rebuilt server, you might see a message stating that the remote host identification has changed. When you rebuild a cloud server, the remote host key changes, which indicates unusual or suspicious activity on your computer. To avoid this issue, remove the older entry for the server IP address. On your local computer, edit the SSH
known_hosts file by using the following command and remove any entries that point to your cloud server IP address:
If your local computer is running an operating system other than Linux or Mac OS X, the location of the
known_hosts file will differ. Refer to your OS documention to learn the location of this file.
Change the root password
After logging in to your server, change the root password by issuing the following command:
Add an Admin User
- To add an admin user, issue the following command and replace demo with the user name of your choice:
Note: After this initial step, you should not log in as the root user to perform daily operations on your server. However, you'll need Super User (sudo) privileges to complete these administrative tasks.
- To assign the sudo privileges to the admin user, issue the following command, which invokes the nano editor by default on Ubuntu:
- At the end of the file, add your admin user name (in place of demo in the following example) and the following text string:
demo ALL=(ALL) ALL
- When you are finished adding this line, exit, confirm, and save the file as follows:
- Press Ctrl-X to exit.
- Press y to confirm the changes.
- Press Enter to save the file as
Note: While working in the nano editor, the backspace/delete key works unexpectedly, deleting characters in front of the cursor rather than behind it. You can resolve this issue by editing the
/etc/nanorcfile (with nano, for example) and either uncommenting the following line or adding it:
The new behavior takes effect after you save the file and open nano again.
Set up public and private keys (SSH keygen)
One effective way of securing SSH access to your cloud server is to use a public/private key, which means that a public key is placed on the server and the private key is on your local computer. This makes it impossible for someone to log in using just a password; they must have the private key. This setup consists of the following basic steps: create the key on your local computer, copy the public key to the server, and set the correct permissions for the key.
The following instructions assume that you use Linux or Mac OS X. For Windows instructions, see Key generation using Putty for Windows.
Step 1. Create the public and private keys
- On your local computer, create a folder to hold your keys:
- To create the SSH keys, on your local computer, enter the following command:
ssh-keygen -t rsa
If you do not want a passphrase, press enter when prompted.
- The id_rsa and id_rsa.pub are created in the .ssh directory. The rsa.pub file holds the public key. You'll place this file on you server.
- The id_rsa file is your private key. Never show, give away, or keep this file on a public computer.
Step 2. Copy the public key
You can use the
scp command to place the public key on your server.
- While still on your local computer, enter the following command, substituting your admin user for demo, IP address and admin user's home directory:
scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub firstname.lastname@example.org:/home/demo/
- When prompted, enter the admin user password.
- Create a directory on the admin user's home folder on your server called .ssh and move the pub key into it, as shown in the following examples:
mv /home/demo/id_rsa.pub /home/demo/.ssh/authorized_keys
Step 3. Modify SSH permissions
Set the correct permissions on the key using the following commands, changing the "demo" user and group to your admin user and group:
chown -R demo:demo /home/demo/.ssh chmod 700 /home/demo/.ssh chmod 600 /home/demo/.ssh/authorized_keys
You have now successfully created the key on your local computer, copied the public key to your server, and set the correct permissions for the key.
Modify the SSH configuration
Keeping the SSH service on the default port of 22 makes it an easy target. We recommend changing the default SSH configuration to make it more secure.
- Issue the following command:
- Change the default port of 22 to one of your choosing, turn off root logins, and define which users can log in:
Port 22 <--- change to a port of your choosing Protocol 2 PermitRootLogin no PasswordAuthentication no UseDNS no AllowUsers demo
Note: The port number can be any integer from 1025 through 65536. Be sure to note the new port number and remember to avoid port conflicts if you later configure additional listening processes.
Because you have set up a public/private key, you can set the PasswordAuthentication parameter to no. However, if you intend to access your server from different computers, you may want to leave PasswordAuthentication set to yes. Only use the private key if the local computer is secure (i.e. don't put the private key on a work computer).
Note that these settings are not enabled yet. Before restarting SSH by using the new port, you need to create a simple firewall by using iptables.
NOTE: Do not restart SSH yet.
Set up a private firewall by using iptables
The utility called iptables is the default firewall for Linux systems. It works by refusing connections to ports or services that you specify.
As part of this procedure, you'll open three ports: ssh, http, and https.
You'll then create two files:
The first is a set of temporary test rules and the second is the permanent set of rules iptables will use.
Note that you need to root user permissions to complete procedure. If you're not currently logged in as root, use the sudo command in front of the following commands.
- Issue the following command to see what processes are currently running:
You'll see something similar to this:
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination
This means the server is are accepting anything from anyone on any port.
- To build the firewall, create the file
/etc/iptables.test.rulesand add some rules. If you have worked through these steps previously, this file may not be empty:
- Change and add ports as necessary.
- Issue the following command to apply the rules to your server:
iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules
- Issue the following command to note any differences:
- If there is no change in the output, repeat the preceding steps and try again.
- Check the rules and see exactly what is being accepted, rejected and dropped. When you're satisfied with the rules, save them permanently by issuing the following command:
iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
Note: If the server is rebooted before you save the rules permanently, the changes are lost and the server reverts to the previous settings.
- Add a script that the system runs when your network interfaces are started. Create the file by running:
- Add the following lines to the new file:
#!/bin/sh /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules
- Save your changes, and then make the new script executable:
chmod +x /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables
Set up iptables in Red Hat
If you are using a Red Hat distribution, iptables works a little differently than it does in an Ubuntu distribution. Using the following commands, you can change your iptables ruleset directly from the command line.
HTTP - port 80
Use the following command to open port 80 for HTTP (web) traffic in your iptables firewall:
sudo /sbin/iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport http -j ACCEPT
HTTPS/SSL - port 443
Use the following command to open port 443 for secure HTTP traffic:
sudo /sbin/iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport https -j ACCEPT
SSH - port 22
Although port 22 is open by default to allow you to SSH to your server after it is built, this command shows you how you would open port 22:
sudo /sbin/iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT
FTP - port 21
FTP is a common service for file transfer, but it is largely obsolete because it is not a secure protocol. We strongly recommend using a secure file transfer protocol like SFTP instead. If you absolutely have to use FTP, use the following commands to open the default port of 21:
sudo /sbin/iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport ftp -j ACCEPT sudo /sbin/iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport ftp-data -j ACCEPT
MySQL - port 3306
If you need to make a remote connection to your MySQL database from another server, you must open port 3306 in iptables:
sudo /sbin/iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport mysql -j ACCEPT
Save your rules
Use the following command to save all the rules that you’ve created. If not saved before your server is rebooted, the iptables ruleset will revert to the default ruleset, blocking all traffic except on port 22.
sudo /sbin/service iptables save
Your changes to iptables take effect only after you have saved the rules and restarted the iptables service. Remember, if you restart iptables before saving your rules, iptables reverts to the default ruleset.
sudo /sbin/service iptables restart
Now you can restart the SSH service. Stay logged in while you restart ssh and test it with a new connection. That way if an error occurs, you can troubleshoot it more easily.
On most distributions, the service is sshd, and you restart it with the command:
sudo service sshd restart
On Ubuntu and some other distributions, the service is called ssh and you restart it with a similar command:
sudo service ssh restart
If you have trouble making a new connection after restarting SSH, check the symptoms to determine what might be wrong.
- If the connection times out, there might be a problem with the iptables configuration.
- If you get a warning about a private key, your key might not be installed on the server properly (check for extra line breaks or characters that were missed in a copy-and-paste operation).
- If you've been rebuilding the server, you might need to remove the host key from your known_hosts file before you can make a connection.
If you're locked out
The incorrect configuration of SSH, sudo, or iptables could cause you to be locked out of your system. If this occurs, log in to the The Rackspace Cloud Control Panel and use the Web Console or Rescue Mode to repair the configurations.
These are the basics of connecting to a Linux Cloud Server and setting up security. See Windows Cloud Server to be perform these steps on a Windows server.
© 2011-2013 Rackspace US, Inc.
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License
See license specifics and DISCLAIMER