Bare Metal to Rackspace Private Cloud
Combining Razor and Chef provides a powerful, fully automated solution for deploying Rackspace Private Cloud Software (RPCS) on bare metal. Using this deployment system, the installation of a customized OpenStack environment across multiple servers can start as fast as they come online.
Razor and Chef
Razor is an automated provisioning tool that is very easy to use and is geared towards installing and managing servers. Razor automatically detects servers that need to be installed and based on policy will install an OS. Finally, Razor hands the servers off to a DevOps tool (Chef) for further configuration. Chef is a configuration management system that allows you to treat infrastructure like code, thereby enabling flexible management at cloud scale. Where Chef is great as a configuration management tool, Razor fills in the gap that exists in bringing systems from first boot into the configuration management space.
For more information:
To install Razor, follow the installation guide at Razor project wiki (https://github.com/puppetlabs/Razor/wiki/Installation). Note that your Razor installation will require a DHCP server as part of the setup. Once Razor is installed and running, you may proceed with configuring Razor to deploy RPCS.
After installing Razor, set it up to install your preferred OS on servers that come online. To help with the installation process itself, Razor uses a Microkernel, or the MK, that boots from the network and lives in memory until a real target operating system can be installed. The MK is a Tiny-Core Linux based, and is used on first boot and as the default boot image for any nodes. Doing this allows Razor to collect data on the node (similar to Chef’s ohai) which is then used in tagging and policies.
Add an MK as your first image to Razor so that it knows how to boot a server (refer to MK documentation for more information on how it works: https://github.com/puppetlabs/Razor-Microkernel/wiki
$ razor image add -t mk p ~/images/rz_mk_prod-image.0.9.3.0.iso
Note: 0.9.3.0 is the current version of the Microkernel at the time of this writing. You will want to ensure your MK is current when deploying Razor.
Once the MK image is added, you will need to add an actual OS that is going to be installed on the nodes. We are using Ubuntu Precise Pangolin image for our example:
$ razor image add -t os p ~/images/ubuntu-12.04.1-server-amd64.iso -n ubuntu_12.04 -v 12.04
Note: You can provide multiple images, versions, and different distributions of Linux (and soon Windows) to Razor. These in turn can be applied to nodes using different policies.
Each OS requires its own model setup in Razor. Models manage OS related data, we are going to create “ubuntu_precise” model. While creating the model, use the UUID from previous command here:
$ razor model add -t ubuntu_precise -l install_precise -i
Create a policy for servers with two CPUs and 8 GB of memory:
$ razor policy add –t linux_deploy -l precise -m -t cpus_2,memsize_8GiB -e true
Note: You can find additional tags for your nodes that razor has discovered by using the ‘razor node’ command.
At this point, you are ready to do automated installs, but not yet ready for the automated hand off to Chef. To fix this, create a Chef broker and then add it to the policy we created.
Razor Chef Broker
The Razor broker manages handoffs between Razor and a DevOps system, like Chef or Puppet. Since we are using Chef, we need a Chef broker. In Razor, the broker takes over at the end of the OS installation, and executes predefined additional steps. The Chef broker will do the following:
1. Install chef-client on the node.
2. Create /etc/chef/validation.pem file.
3. Create basic /etc/chef/client.rb file with client settings.
4. Inject custom Razor metadata into the new node.
5. Execute initial run list.
The following command displays available brokers in Razor:
$ razor broker get plugins
Create a new broker to use for private cloud deployments:
$ razor broker add -p chef -n Chef -d PrivateCloud
Here, you will be prompted to answer a few questions about your Chef setup. When in doubt about the different options that need to be set, refer to this step-by-step guide on how to set up Chef broker: http://anystacker.com/2012/12/razor-chef-broker-updated/
After setting up a new broker, add it to the policy:
$ razor policy update -b
This is what newly created broker will look like:
[Policy] [update_policy] Line Number => 3 Label => precise Enabled => true Template => linux_deploy Description => Policy for deploying a Linux-based operating system. Tags => [cpus_2, memsize_8GiB] Model Label => install_precise Broker Target => Chef Currently Bound => 1 Maximum Bound => 0 Bound Counter => 1
Now, any new node that matches this policy will go trough a hand off to Chef server.
Setting up Chef Server
In order to make large Rackspace Private Cloud deployments possible, you will need to have Chef server set up with search functionality enabled. Use your server to host cookbooks and make it accessible to all new nodes that try to register with it. Roles and cookbooks for RPCS were designed in such a way that they can be used to deploy anything from single all-in-one server to multi-node installations. Get them here: https://github.com/rcbops/chef-cookbooks/
Once you have them available, you are ready to start deploying!
Private Cloud Roles
After OS is installed on your new node, you have several different options to install RPCS on it. If you need just one node, do it by hand, and execute the following:
$ knife node run_list add node1 role[allinone]
This will install an all-in-one OpenStack. Individual nodes can be installed the same way, by using different roles. For example:
Install a controller node by adding “single-controller” role to its run_list:
$ knife node run_list add <controller_node_name> ‘role[single-controller]’
Install a compute node by adding “single-compute” role to its run_list:
$ knife node run_list add <compute_node_name> ‘role[single-compute]’ $ chef-client
As soon as we run the chef-client on compute node, cookbooks use Chef search feature to locate the node with the rabbit role or mysql role for instance and set the appropriate IP in its nova.conf file. Therefore, it is important to make sure that the controller node is finished prior to adding the single-compute role to compute nodes. Likewise multiple nodes can be added to compute nodes to a controller and form a Private Cloud Cluster.
Some of the important roles and recipes:
Role[single-controller] – executes the below mentioned roles one by one:
run_list( "role[base]", "role[mysql-master]", "role[rabbitmq-server]", "role[keystone]", "role[glance-registry]", "role[glance-api]", "role[nova-setup]", "role[nova-scheduler]", "role[nova-api-ec2]", "role[nova-api-os-compute]", "role[cinder-all]", "role[nova-cert]", "role[nova-vncproxy]", "role[horizon-server]" )
Role[single-compute] – executes the below listed roles one by one:
run_list( "role[base]", "recipe[nova::compute]" “recipe[nova::nova-network]” )
Users can update the run_list and design the private cloud cluster in the order they want it to be.
Fully Automating the Deployment
While running knife commands on each individual server is easy enough, it would be even easier if this task was automated. Razor is capable of passing a list of roles to the server at the time of hand off. Lets say you needed to automatically provision a lot of servers with all-in-one OpenStack installations for your test systems. You may achieve this by running the knife command on all servers for all-in-one role:
$ knife node run_list add node1 role[allinone]
In order for the Razor to do this for you, create a new Chef broker to include the run list:
Name => Chef Description => allInOne Plugin => chef UUID => 23PjqYKm915c19EPTNRrKF Chef Server URL => https://chef.example.com:4000 Chef Version => 10.16.2 Validation Key MD5 Hash => 186f28af3fa82b2760f7e028dbbdbe0c Validation Client Name => chef-validator Bootstrap Environment => _default Install Sh Url => http://opscode.com/chef/install.sh Chef Client Path => chef-client Base Run List => role[allinone]
Associate this broker with the Razor policy used to deploy your test environments, and the all-in-one Chef roles will be installed on the new node after it connects to the system.
Similarly, servers dedicated to a different type of node, can have a different broker set up. For example, dedicated Volume nodes can be set up with the appropriate Cinder specific run list. After checking what roles are used to deploy Cinder node on Rackspace Cloud Builders github, https://github.com/rcbops/chef-cookbooks/blob/master/roles/cinder-all.rb, add the list of roles to a new broker:
Name => Chef Description => cinderAll Plugin => chef UUID => 4kJh3byJFKavzyhzXOuCMF Chef Server URL => https://chef.example.com:4000 Chef Version => 10.16.2 Validation Key MD5 Hash => c8c76aa7967f727be89445681536d71f Validation Client Name => chef-validator Bootstrap Environment => _default Install Sh Url => http://opscode.com/chef/install.sh Chef Client Path => chef-client Base Run List => role[base], role[cinder-setup], role[cinder-api], role[cinder-scheduler], role[cinder-volume]
Once the new broker is setup, repeat the process of setting up model and policy that would define cinder-specific storage. You can differentiate Cinder servers from Compute servers using tags based on hardware attributes. Razor tags are labels that can be applied to one or more node. If you create a Cinder policy for a server that has 16 GB ram and 2 hard disks, new servers matching the specifications will be installed as Cinder nodes anytime they come online.
Create Cinder specific tags for this example. Add the tag, followed by tag “matchers”. Each matcher is based on server specific metadata that Razor Microkernel collects.
$ razor tag add -n cinderTags -t cinder
Name => cinderTags
Tags => cinder
UUID => 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp
If disk one is equal to 2048 GB:
$ razor tag 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp matcher add -k mk_hw_disk0_size -c equal -v 2048
If disk two is equal to 4096 GB:
$ razor tag 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp matcher add -k mk_hw_disk1_size -c equal -v 4096
If memory is 16 GB:
$ razor tag 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp matcher add -k mk_hw_mem -c equal -v 16
After adding matchers, your new tag should be similar to this:
$ razor tag 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp
Name => cinderTags
Tags => cinder
UUID => 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp
53EDDNpiGbAANeVmutpnSF - 'mk_hw_disk0_size' (equal) '2048'
5cHU5UUfN6iGzJRCZIghUJ - 'mk_hw_disk1_size' (equal) '4096'
1pRkngGTTUa8Hu91WinQZP - 'mk_hw_mem' (equal) '16'
With tags created, create a new policy:
$ razor policy add -p linux_deploy -l Cinder -m 2dz79YGAQkgn6iqOHBGNtr -b 4kJh3byJFKavzyhzXOuCMF -t 2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp -e true
UUID => 3qMLRURZwfWECBvD1aHQ0p
Line Number => 1
Label => Cinder
Enabled => true
Template => linux_deploy
Description => Policy for deploying a Linux-based operating system.
Tags => [2u7LG7s8JFBNl3cVdTsjwp]
Model Label => install_precise
Broker Target => Chef
Currently Bound => 0
Maximum Bound => 0
Bound Counter => 0
After all this setup, our new policy is ready to install Cinder on all servers that have 2 disks, sized 2 and 4 TB, and 16 GB of memory. While this is just an example, you can see where and how to build upon it to deploy your own Private Cloud.
Automating the Automated Deployment
Razor makes full automation simple by providing full RESTful APIs. If you have a Chef recipe that takes in different configurations, you can create models, policies, and tags through Razor API. With all the steps automated, it takes the same amount of time to deploy 20 individual clusters as it would take one. Deployment model similar to this is used at Rackspace. Quality engineering teams use a combination of Razor, Chef, and Jenkins to run a full suite of automated tests on RPCS. Tests include integration, functional, and capacity testing on bare metal as well as virtualized environment.
Other business systems can track assets and their assignment to business units. Utilizing the flexible provisioning engine from Razor and Chef, you can repurpose gear from one deployment to another. In this way, IT departments can gain greater flexibility with changing requirements and agility to keep up with the speed of business demands.
There are many ways to provision hardware and software, but larger installations require more automated solutions. Razor and Chef make a perfect combination for deploying RPCS onto bare metal, while requiring very little setup.
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